Research Papers

Need help understanding the facts about animal experiments? There are many resources available – academic papers, systematic reviews and conference proceedings - that provide credible references as to why animals are not good models for human medicines.

The following list provides links to such items we believe can assist you.

Citation
DeGrazia, D., & Sebo, J. (2015). Necessary conditions for morally responsible animal research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(04), 420-430.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180115000080
Keywords:
Ethics, unnecessary harm, animal model
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Díaz Lantada, A., de Blas Romero, A., Schwentenwein, M., Jellinek, C., Homa, J., & García-Ruíz, J. P. (2017). Monolithic 3D labs- and organs-on-chips obtained by lithography-based ceramic manufacture. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology(17 July).
Link:
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00170-017-0443-6
Keywords:
alternatives, organ-on-chip, lab-on-chip, lithography-based ceramic manufacture, labs-on-chips, organs-on-chips, ceramic materials processing, biomedical microsystems, MEMS, Bio-MEMS
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Didion, J., Buus, R., Naghashfar, Z., Threadgill, D., Morse, H., & de Villena, F. P.-M. (2014). SNP array profiling of mouse cell lines identifies their strains of origin and reveals cross-contamination and widespread aneuploidy. BMC Genomics, 15(1),
Link:
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/15/847
Keywords:
Evidence bias, mouse, mice
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Dingle, Y.-T. L., Boutin, M. E., Chirila, A. M., Livi, L. L., Labriola, N. R., Jakubek, L. M., et al. (2015). Three-dimensional neural spheroid culture: An in vitro model for cortical studies. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.tec.2015.0135
Keywords:
Alternatives, mini brain
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Dodd, A. (2014). The trouble with insect cyborgs. Society & Animals, 22(2), 153-173.
Link:
http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685306-12341254
Keywords:
Ethics, insects
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Doke, S. K., & Dhawale, S. C. (2013). Alternatives to animal testing: A review. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal.
Link:
http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1319016413001096/1-s2.0-S1319016413001096-main.pdf?_tid=0f32f778-4d43-11e4-aeb6-00000aab0f02&acdnat=1412591294_8a34ad035cf24ed88c629edcccd3babe
Keywords:
Alternatives, ethics, 3Rs
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Eisenman, S. F. (2016). Criticizing animal experimentation, at my peril. Altex, 33(1), 3-12.
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/All-issues/Issue.50.html?iid=156&aid=1
Keywords:
Bias, antibodies, Northwestern University, animal welfare
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Elwood, R. W. (2011). Pain and suffering in invertebrates? ILAR Journal, 52(2), 175-184.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21709310
Keywords:
Pain, invertebrates
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Esch, M. B., Mahler, G. J., Stokol, T., & Shuler, M. L. (2014). Body-on-a-chip simulation with gastrointestinal tract and liver tissues suggests that ingested nanoparticles have the potential to cause liver injury. Lab on a Chip, 14(16), 3081-3092.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C4LC00371C
Keywords:
Alternatives, nanoparticles
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
European Chemicals Agency. (2014). The use of alternatives to testing on animals for the REACH Regulation. Second report under Article 117(3) of the REACH Regulation. Helsinki, Finland: European Chemicals Agency.
Link:
http://www.echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13639/alternatives_test_animals_2014_en.pdf
Keywords:
Alternatives, European Union
Record type:
Report
Citation
European Chemicals Agency. (2017). The use of alternatives to testing on animals for the REACH Regulation. Third report under Article 117(3) of REACH. Helsinki, Finland: ECHA.
Link:
https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13639/alternatives_test_animals_2017_summary_en.pdf/487e2516-0ad0-90a2-a923-96417ffd6b6b
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal resarch, REACH, EU
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
European Commission. (2009). Expert working group on severity classification of scientific procedures performed on animals. Final report. Brussel, Belgium: European Commission
Link:
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/pdf/report_ewg.pdf
Keywords:
Pain, severity of procedure classification
Record type:
Expert Opinion
Citation
European Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) for the International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation (ICCR). (2014). ICATM Alternative Test Method Validation and Regulatory Acceptance January 2014 Status Report for ICCR. Ispa, Italy: Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission.
Link:
http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/iccvam/docs/icatm/icatm-reportforiccr-jan2014-508.pdf
Keywords:
Alternatives, validation, regulation, cosmetics
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
Evans, E. M. Stumbling blocks or stepping stones? The problems and promises of policy reform goals for the animal advocacy movement. Sociological Perspectives, (forthcoming).
Link:
https://www.academia.edu/14079838/_Stumbling_Blocks_or_Stepping_Stones_The_Problems_and_Promises_of_Policy_Reform_Goals_for_the_Animal_Advocacy_Movement._
Keywords:
Policy, animal advocacy
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Federico, C. A., Carlisle, B., Kimmelman, J., & Fergusson, D. A. (2014). Late, never, or nonexistent: The inaccessibility of preclinical evidence for new drugs. British Journal of Pharmacology, 171(18), 4247–4254.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12771
Keywords:
Drug effectiveness, drug safety, preclinical research
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Fenwick, N., Duffus, S., & Griffin, G. (2014). Pain management for animals used in science: Views of scientists and veterinarians in Canada. Animals, 4(3), 494-514.
Link:
http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/4/3/494
Keywords:
Pain, animal welfare, animal models, 3Rs
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Ferdowsian, H. R., & Beck, N. (2011). Ethical and scientific considerations regarding animal testing and research. PLoS ONE, 6(9), e24059.
Link:
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0024059
Keywords:
3Rs, animal experiments, ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Ferdowsian, H. R., & Gluck, J. P. (2015). The ethical challenges of animal research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(04), 391-406.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180115000067
Keywords:
Ethics, Cambridge Declaration of Consciousness
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Finsen, S. (1988). Sinking the research lifeboat. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 13(2), 197-212.
Link:
http://jmp.oxfordjournals.org/content/13/2/197.abstract
Keywords:
Ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Franco, N. H. (2013). Animal experiments in biomedical research: A historical perspective. Animals, 3(1), 238-273.
Link:
http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/3/1/238/htm
Keywords:
Ethics, history of science
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Fry, D. (2011). How different countries control animal experiments outside recognized establishments. Paper presented at the 8th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences.
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/resources/309313_Fry31.pdf
Keywords:
Regulation, 3Rs
Record type:
Conference Proceedings
Citation
Gallup News Service. (2015). Gallup poll social series: Values and beliefs: Gallup.
Link:
http://www.gallup.com/poll/183275/say-animals-rights-people.aspx
Keywords:
opinion, animal welfare, animal rights, entertainment
Record type:
Data & Statistics
Citation
Garner, J. P., Gaskill, B. N., Weber, E. M., Ahloy-Dallaire, J., & Pritchett-Corning, K. R. (2017). Introducing Therioepistemology: the study of how knowledge is gained from animal research. Lab Animal, 46(4), 103-113.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/laban.1224
Keywords:
Animal models, bias, epistemology
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Gilbert, S., Kaebnick, G. E., & Murray, T. H. (2012). Animal research ethics. Evolving views and practices: The Hastings Center.
Link:
http://www.thehastingscenter.org/uploadedFiles/Publications/Special_Reports/AnimalResearchEthics.pdf
Keywords:
Ethics
Record type:
Report
Citation
Gleeson, M. P., Hersey, A., & Hannongbua, S. (2011). In-silico ADME models: a general assessment of their utility in drug discovery applications. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 11(4), 358-381.
Link:
http://www.benthamdirect.org/pages/content.php?CTMC/2011/00000011/00000004/0005R.SGM
Keywords:
Alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Goldenberg, S. (2005). Ethical aspects when using animals in research. Brazilian Oral Research, 19(1).
Link:
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-83242005000100001&nrm=iso
Keywords:
Ethics, animal ethics committees
Record type:
Editorial,Other
Citation
Goodman, J. R., Borch, C. A., & Cherry, E. (2012). Mounting opposition to vivisection. Contexts, 11(2), 68-69.
Link:
http://ctx.sagepub.com/content/11/2/68.abstract
Keywords:
Public opinion
Record type:
Expert Opinion
Citation
Goodman, J., Chandna, A., & Roe, K. (2015). Trends in animal use at US research facilities. Journal of Medical Ethics(25 February).
Link:
http://jme.bmj.com/content/early/2015/01/27/medethics-2014-102404.abstract
Keywords:
statistics, animal use
Record type:
Data & Statistics,Research Study
Citation
Gordon, N., & Langley, G. (2008). Replacing primates in medical research. An expert report by: Dr Hadwen Trust, FRAME, St Andrew Animal Fund.
Link:
http://www.dierproeveninformatie.nl/downloads/Replacing%20primates%20in%20medical%20research.pdf
Keywords:
Non-human primates, 3Rs, alternatives
Record type:
Report
Citation
Gouveia, K., & Hurst, J. L. (2017). Optimising reliability of mouse performance in behavioural testing: the major role of non-aversive handling. Scientific Reports, 7, 44999.
Link:
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep44999
Keywords:
Handling mice by the tail,animal welfare, bias
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Graham, A. D., Olof, S. N., Burke, M. J., Armstrong, J. P. K., Mikhailova, E. A., Nicholson, J. G., et al. (2017). High-resolution patterned cellular constructs by droplet-based 3d printing. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 7004
Link:
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-06358-x
Keywords:
Tissue engineering, alternatives, bioprinting, 3D printing
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Greek, R. (2014). The ethical implications for humans in light of the poor predictive value of animal models. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5(16), 40.
Link:
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=48946
Keywords:
Animal model, biological complex system, evolution, predictive value, trans-species modeling theory, bias, ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Greek, R., & Greek, J. (2010). Is the use of sentient animals in basic research justifiable? Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, 5(14).
Link:
http://www.peh-med.com/content/5/1/14
Keywords:
Ethics, basic research
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Greek, R., & Menache, A. (2013). Systematic reviews of animal models: Methodology versus epistemology. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 10(3), 206-221.
Link:
http://www.medsci.org/v10p0206.htm
Keywords:
Systematic reviews, axiom, biological complexity, evolution, animal models
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Greek, R., Hansen, L. A., & Menache, A. (2011). An analysis of the Bateson Review of research using nonhuman primates. Medicolegal and Bioethics, 1, 3-22.
Link:
http://www.dovepress.com/an-analysis-of-the-bateson-review-of-research-using-nonhuman-primates-peer-reviewed-article-MB-recommendation1
Keywords:
Ethics, nonhuman primates
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Greek, R., Pippus, A., & Hansen, L. (2012). The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling. BMC Medical Ethics, 13(1), 16.
Link:
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6939/13/16
Keywords:
Ethics, law, regulation
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Groff, K., & Bishop, P. (2017). Itching for change: Embracing modern flea and tick product development. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology(6 July online).
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230017301861
Keywords:
fleas, ticks, dogs, cats, product testing, ectoparasiticides, feeding, alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Hagelin, J., Carlsson, H.-E., & Hau, J. (2003). An overview of surveys on how people view animal experimentation: some factors that may influence the outcome. Public Understanding of Science, 12(1), 67-81.
Link:
http://pus.sagepub.com/content/12/1/67.abstract
Keywords:
Public opinion, surveys
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Hamm, J., Sullivan, K., Clippinger, A. J., Strickland, J., Bell, S., Bhhatarai, B., et al. (2017). Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing. Toxicology in Vitro, 41(June), 245-259
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887233317300048
Keywords:
Acute systemic toxicity, alternatives, 3Rs, in vitro, in silico
Record type:
Academic Paper,Conference Proceedings
Citation
Hansen, L. A., Goodman, J. R., & Chandna, A. (2012). Analysis of animal research ethics committee membership at American institutions. Animals, 2(1), 68-75.
Link:
http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/2/1/68
Keywords:
Animal ethics committees
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Hansen, L. A., Goodman, J. R., & Chandna, A. (2014). Analysis of animal research ethics committee membership at U.S. institutions. Paper presented at the Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research (PRIM&R) IACUC Conference.
Link:
http://www.mediapeta.com/peta/PDF/IACUCCompositionStudy2014.pdf
Keywords:
Animal ethics committees
Record type:
Conference Proceedings,Other
Citation
Harrington, J. (2013). A Predicament: Animal models and human tissue in medical research. Configurations, 21(2), 183-200.
Link:
http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/configurations/v021/21.2.harrington.html
Keywords:
Alternatives, 3Rs
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Hartung, T. (2016). E-cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing. Altex, 33(3), 211-224
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/resources/2altex_2016_3_211_224_FFT_Hartung1.pdf
Keywords:
Alternatives, e-cigarettes, tobacco
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Hartung, T. (2016). Making big sense from big data in toxicology by read-across. Altex, 33(2), 83-93
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/resources/altex_2016_2_083_093_FFT_Hartung21.pdf
Keywords:
Alternatives, computational toxicology, in silico , data-mining, read-across, databases
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Hartung, T. (2017). Food for thought ... Opinion versus evidence for the need to move away from animal testing. ALTEX, 34(2), 193-200.
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/resources/altex_2017_2_193_200_FFT_Hartung.pdf
Keywords:
preclinical research, animal models, alternative methods, reproducibility, limitations, bias
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Hasenberg, T., Mühleder, S., Dotzler, A., Bauer, S., Labuda, K., Holnthoner, W., et al. (2015). Emulating human microcapillaries in a multi-organ-chip platform. Journal of Biotechnology, 216(December), 1-10.
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168165615301425
Keywords:
Alternatives, multi-organ-chip, vasculature, vasculogenesis, fibrin scaffold, tissue engineering, co-culture models
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Hasiwa, N., Bailey, J., Clausing, P., Daneshian, M., Eileraas, M., Farkas, S., et al. (2011). Critical evaluation of the use of dogs in biomedical research and testing in Europe. Altex, 28(4), 326-340.
Link:
http://altweb.jhsph.edu/altex/28_4/altex_2011_4_326_340_Hasiwa1.pdf
Keywords:
Dogs, animal welfare, 3Rs, ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Hawkins, P., Prescott, M., Carbone, L., Dennison, N., Johnson, C., Makowska, I., et al. (2016). A good death? Report of the second Newcastle Meeting on Laboratory Animal Euthanasia. Animals, 6(9), 50
Link:
http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/6/9/50
Keywords:
Euthanasia, animal welfare, carbon dioxide, humane killing, mouse, rat, refinement, 3Rs, zebrafish
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Hay, M., Thomas, D. W., Craighead, J. L., Economides, C., & Rosenthal, J. (2014). Clinical development success rates for investigational drugs. Nature Biotechnology, 32(1), 40-51.
Link:
http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v32/n1/full/nbt.2786.html
Keywords:
Drug approvals, US Food and Drug Administration, clinical development success rates, drug trials
Record type:
Academic Paper,Data & Statistics
Citation
HM Government. (2015). The Government’s 5 year Progress Report on International Animal Welfare: UK HM Government.
Link:
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/412631/animal-welfare-5-year-progress-report.pdf
Keywords:
UK Government, 3Rs, alternatives
Record type:
Government Report

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