Research Papers

Need help understanding the facts about animal experiments? There are many resources available – academic papers, systematic reviews and conference proceedings - that provide credible references as to why animals are not good models for human medicines.

The following list provides links to such items we believe can assist you.

Citation
Hobson-West, P. (2010). The role of ‘public opinion’ in the UK animal research debate. Journal of Medical Ethics, 36(1), 46-49.
Link:
http://jme.bmj.com/content/36/1/46.abstract
Keywords:
Public opinion, ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Holman, C., Piper, S. K., Grittner, U., Diamantaras, A. A., Kimmelman, J., Siegerink, B., et al. (2016). Where have all the rodents gone? The effects of attrition in experimental research on cancer and stroke. PLoS Biology, 14(1), e1002331.
Link:
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002331
Keywords:
Animal model, bias
Record type:
Academic Paper,Meta-Analysis
Citation
Home Office. (2013). Annual statistics of scientific procedures on living animals Great Britain 2012. London: Government of Great Britain.
Link:
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/212610/spanimals12.pdf
Keywords:
Data & statistics
Record type:
Data & Statistics,Government Report
Citation
Home Office. (2015). Annual statistics of scientific procedures on living animals Great Britain 2014: UK Government.
Link:
https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/statistics-of-scientific-procedures-on-living-animals-great-britain-2014
Keywords:
Animal model, UK
Record type:
Data & Statistics,Government Report
Citation
Huch, M., Gehart, H., van Boxtel, R., Hamer, K., Blokzijl, F., Verstegen, Monique M. A., et al. Long-term culture of genome-stable bipotent stem cells from adult human liver. Cell.
Link:
http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(14)01566-9
Keywords:
Alternatives, 3Rs
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Huh, D., Matthews, B. D., Mammoto, A., Montoya-Zavala, M., Hsin, H. Y., & Ingber, D. E. (2010). Reconstituting organ-level lung functions on a chip. Science, 328(5986), 1662-1668.
Link:
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/328/5986/1662.abstract
Keywords:
Alternatives
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Humane Research Council. (2014). Animal Tracker - Year 7.
Link:
http://spot.humaneresearch.org/content/animal-tracker-year-7
Keywords:
Opinion, survey
Record type:
Data & Statistics,Report
Citation
Humane Research Council. (2014). Animal Tracker Australia. Baseline survey results - June 2014. Sydney: Voiceless.
Link:
https://www.voiceless.org.au/content/animal-tracker-australia-0
Keywords:
opinion, survey, Australia
Record type:
Report,Data
Citation
Hwang, T. J., Carpenter, D., Lauffenburger, J. C., Wang, B., Franklin, J. M., & Kesselheim, A. S. (2016). Failure of investigational drugs in late-stage clinical development and publication of trial results. JAMA Internal Medicine(10 October)
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.6008
Keywords:
Animal model, clinical trial, bias
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Inglez de Souza, M. C. C. M., & Matera, J. M. (2015). Bleeding simulation in embalmed cadavers: bridging the gap between simulation and live surgery. Altex, 32(1), 59-63.
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/All-issues/Issue.50.html?iid=152&aid=6
Keywords:
3Rs, alternatives, veterinary surgical education
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Ingram, D. K., & de Cabo, R. (2017). Calorie restriction in rodents: Caveats to consider. Ageing Research Reviews(10 June online).
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568163717301265
Keywords:
Bias, nutrition, diet restriction, protein restriction, fasting, low calorie diets, longevity, mortality, lifespan, healthspan, chronic disease
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Innovate Uk. (2015). A non-animal technologies roadmap for the UK. Advancing predictive biology: Innovate UK, the National Centre for the Replacement Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the Defence, Science and Technology Laboratory, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, and the Medical Research Council.
Link:
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/474558/Roadmap_NonAnimalTech_final_09Nov2015.pdf
Keywords:
Alternatives, UK
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
Instrumented cardiac microphysiological devices via multimaterial three-dimensional printing.
Link:
http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v16/n3/full/nmat4782.html
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research, biomedical engineering, lab-on-a-chip, sensors and biosensors, tissue engineering, tissues
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Medicine, 2(8).
Link:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124
Keywords:
Research bias
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2012). Extrapolating from animals to humans. Science Translational Medicine, 4(151), 151ps115.
Link:
http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/4/151/151ps15.full.pdf
Keywords:
Animal model, mouse, mice, rats, research bias
Record type:
Expert Opinion
Citation
Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2014). How to make more published research true. PLoS Medicine, 11(10), e1001747.
Link:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001747
Keywords:
Research bias
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Iqbal, S. A., Wallach, J. D., Khoury, M. J., Schully, S. D., & Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2016). Reproducible research practices and transparency across the biomedical literature. PLoS Biology, 14(1), e1002333.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1002333
Keywords:
Bias, reproducibility, transparency
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Irie, N., Weinberger, L., Tang, Walfred W. C., Kobayashi, T., Viukov, S., Manor, Y. S., et al. (2015). SOX17 Is a critical specifier of human primordial germ cell fate. Cell, 160(15 January).
Link:
http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(14)01583-9
Keywords:
3Rs, alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Ji, J., Hedelin, A., Malmlöf, M., Kessler, V., Seisenbaeva, G., Gerde, P., et al. (2017). Development of combining of human bronchial mucosa models with XposeALI® for exposure of air pollution nanoparticles. PLOS ONE, 12(1), e0170428.
Link:
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0170428
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Joffe, A. R., Bara, M., Anton, N., & Nobis, N. (2015). Expectations for methodology and translation of animal research: a survey of health care workers. BMC Medical Ethics, 16, 29.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4428252/pdf/12910_2015_Article_24.pdf
Keywords:
Animal model, efficacy, opinion
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Joffe, A. R., Bara, M., Anton, N., & Nobis, N. (2016). The ethics of animal research: a survey of the public and scientists in North America. BMC Medical Ethics, 17, 17
Link:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4812627/
Keywords:
Animal models, ethics, methodology
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Jones, R., & Greek, R. (2014). A review of the Institute of Medicine’s analysis of using chimpanzees in biomedical research. Science and Engineering Ethics, 20(2), 481-504.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11948-013-9442-7
Keywords:
Ethics, chimpanzees, biological complexity, evolution, bias
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Kahn, J. (2014). Lessons learned: challenges in applying current constraints on research on chimpanzees to other animals. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 35(2), 97-104.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11017-014-9284-6
Keywords:
Chimpanzees, nonhuman primates, public policy
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Kandasamy, K., Chuah, J. K., Su, R., Huang, P., Eng, K. G., Xiong, S., et al. (2015). Prediction of drug-induced nephrotoxicity and injury mechanisms with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cells and machine learning methods. Scientific Reports, 5(27 July), 12337.
Link:
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep12337
Keywords:
Alternatives, pluripotent stem cells, toxicity, kidney
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Kantin, H., & Wendler, D. (2015). Is there a role for assent or dissent in animal research? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(04), 459-472.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180115000110
Keywords:
Ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Khanna, R., & Burrows, S. R. (2011). Human immunology: a case for the ascent of non-furry immunology. Immunology & Cell Biology, 89(3), 330-331.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.2010.173
Keywords:
Mice, alternatives, bias
Record type:
Editorial
Citation
Kilkenny, C., Parsons, N., Kadyszewski, E., Festing, M. F. W., Cuthill, I. C., Fry, D., et al. (2009). Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals. PLoS ONE, 4(11), e7824.
Link:
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0007824
Keywords:
Ethics, research bias
Record type:
Academic Paper,Systematic Review
Citation
Kim, H. J., Huh, D., Hamilton, G., & Ingber, D. E. (2012). Human gut-on-a-chip inhabited by microbial flora that experiences intestinal peristalsis-like motions and flow. Lab on a Chip, 12(12), 2165-2174.
Link:
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2012/LC/c2lc40074j
Keywords:
Alternatives, drug testing
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Kleinstreuer, N. C., Sullivan, K., Allen, D., Edwards, S., Mendrick, D. L., Embry, M., et al. (2016). Adverse outcome pathways: From research to regulation scientific workshop report. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 76, 39-50.
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230016300071
Keywords:
AOP (adverse outcome pathway); workshop; toxicology; pathway; regulatory; quantitative; application; acceptance; criteria; computational
Record type:
Academic Paper,Conference Proceedings,Expert Opinion
Citation
Kleinstreuer, N. C., Yang, J., Berg, E. L., Knudsen, T. B., Richard, A. M., Martin, M. T., et al. (2014). Phenotypic screening of the ToxCast chemical library to classify toxic and therapeutic mechanisms. Nature Biotechnology, 32, 583–591.
Link:
http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v32/n6/full/nbt.2914.html
Keywords:
Alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Knight, A. (2007). Systematic reviews of animal experiments demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility. Alternatives To Laboratory Animals, 35, 641–659.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18186670
Keywords:
Research bias, animal model
Record type:
Systematic Review
Citation
Knight, A. (2008). Reviewing existing knowledge prior to conducting animal studies. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 36(6), 709-712.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19154097
Keywords:
Alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Knight, A. (2014). Invasive animal research - weighing the harms and benefits. Biochemist, 36(3).
Link:
http://www.biochemist.org/bio/03603/0030/036030030.pdf
Keywords:
Alternatives, ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Kokolus, K. M., Capitano, M. L., Lee, C.-T., Eng, J. W.-L., Waight, J. D., Hylander, B. L., et al. (2013). Baseline tumor growth and immune control in laboratory mice are significantly influenced by subthermoneutral housing temperature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(50), 20176–20181.
Link:
http://www.pnas.org/content/110/50/20176.abstract
Keywords:
Research bias, mouse, mice
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Kousta, S., Ferguson, C., & Ganley, E. (2016). Meta-research: Broadening the scope of PLOS Biology. PLoS Biology, 14(1), e1002334.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1002334
Keywords:
Meta-research, bias
Record type:
Editorial
Citation
LaFollette, H., & Shanks, N. (1993). The intact systems argument: Problems with the standard defense of animal experimentation. The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 31(3), 323-333.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-6962.1993.tb01724.x
Keywords:
Animal model, bias, ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Langley, G. (2009). The validity of animal experiments in medical research. RSDA, 1, 161–168.
Link:
http://animalstudiesrepository.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1050&context=acwp_arte
Keywords:
Bias, animal models
Record type:
Expert Opinion
Citation
Langley, G. R. (2014). Considering a new paradigm for Alzheimer's disease research. Drug Discovery Today, 19(8), 1114-1124.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24662035
Keywords:
Alzheimer's, research bias, alternatives, animal model
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Langley, G. R., Adcock, I. M., Busquet, F., Crofton, K. M., Csernok, E., Giese, C., et al. (2017). Towards a 21st-century roadmap for biomedical research and drug discovery: consensus report and recommendations. Drug Discovery Today, 22(2), 327–339.
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359644616303907
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Langley, G., Austin, C. P., Balapure, A. K., Birnbaum, L. S., Bucher, J. R., Fentem, J., et al. (2015). Lessons from toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century paradigm for medical research. Environmental Health Perspectives, 123(11), A268-272.
Link:
http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/15-10345/
Keywords:
Alternatives, toxicology
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Large-scale gene expression profiling platform for identification of context-dependent drug responses in multicellular tumor spheroids
Link:
http://www.cell.com/cell-chemical-biology/abstract/S2451-9456(16)30353-1
Keywords:
OXPHOS, spheroids, statins, mevalonate pathway, 3D culture, gene expression profiling, high-throughput screening, L1000, transcriptomics, mitochondria, alternatives to animal research
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Leist, M., & Hartung, T. (2013). REPRINT: Inflammatory findings on species extrapolations: humans are definitely no 70-kg mice. ALTEX, 30(2), 227 - 230.
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/resources/raltex_2013_2_227_230_Comment_Leist.pdf
Keywords:
Research bias, animal model, species specificity
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Levy, G., Bomze, D., Heinz, S., Ramachandran, S. D., Noerenberg, A., Cohen, M., et al. (2015). Long-term culture and expansion of primary human hepatocytes. Nature Biotechnology, 33, 1264–1271.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3377
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research, liver
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Lidbury, B. A. (2015). Brett Lidbury: Animal instincts. MJA InSight(20 April).
Link:
https://www.mja.com.au/insight/2015/14/brett-lidbury-animal-instincts
Keywords:
3Rs, alternatives, bias
Record type:
Expert Opinion
Citation
Lidster, K., Jefferys, J. G., Blümcke, I., Crunelli, V., Flecknell, P., Frenguelli, B. G., et al. (2015). Opportunities for improving animal welfare in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, (in press).
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165027015003404
Keywords:
3Rs, animal model epilepsy, mouse, rat, refinement, seizure
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Lin, S., Lin, Y., Nery, J. R., Urich, M. A., Breschi, A., Davis, C. A., et al. (2014). Comparison of the transcriptional landscapes between human and mouse tissues. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(48), 17224–17229.
Link:
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/11/19/1413624111.abstract
Keywords:
Mouse, mice
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Loskill, P., Marcus, S. G., Mathur, A., Reese, W. M., & Healy, K. E. (2015). μOrgano: A Lego®-like plug & play system for modular multi-organ-chips. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0139587.
Link:
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139587
Keywords:
Alternatives, organ-on-a-chip
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Lund, T. B., Lassen, J., & Sandoe, P. (2012). Public attitude formation regarding animal research. Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals, 25(4), 475-490.
Link:
http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/83369463/public-attitude-formation-regarding-animal-research
Keywords:
Public opinion
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Lund, T. B., Mørkbak, M. R., Lassen, J., & Sandøe, P. (2014). Painful dilemmas: A study of the way the public’s assessment of animal research balances costs to animals against human benefits. Public Understanding of Science, 23(4), 428-444.
Link:
http://pus.sagepub.com/content/23/4/428.abstract
Keywords:
Public opinion, ethics
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Lund, T. B., Sørensen, T. I. A., Olsson, I. A. S., Hansen, A. K., & Sandøe, P. (2014). Is it acceptable to use animals to model obese humans? A critical discussion of two arguments against the use of animals in obesity research. Journal of Medical Ethics, 40(5), 320-324.
Link:
http://jme.bmj.com/content/40/5/320.abstract
Keywords:
Ethics, animal model
Record type:
Academic Paper

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