Research Papers

Need help understanding the facts about animal experiments? There are many resources available – academic papers, systematic reviews and conference proceedings - that provide credible references as to why animals are not good models for human medicines.

The following list provides links to such items we believe can assist you.

Citation
Lush Prize. (2014). A global view of animal experiments 2014.
Link:
http://www.lushprize.org/wp-content/uploads/Global_View_of-Animal_Experiments_2014.pdf
Keywords:
Ethics, drug testing, genetically modified animals, GM
Record type:
Report
Citation
Lynch, V. J. (2009). Use with caution: Developmental systems divergence and potential pitfalls of animal models. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 82( 2), 53-66.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2701150/
Keywords:
Research bias, animal model
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Macleod, M. R., Lawson McLean, A., Kyriakopoulou, A., Serghiou, S., de Wilde, A., Sherratt, N., et al. (2015). Risk of bias in reports of in vivo research: A focus for improvement. PLoS Biology, 13(10), e1002273.
Link:
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002273
Keywords:
Bias, animal model, research quality
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Mak, I. W., Evaniew, N., & Ghert, M. (2014). Lost in translation: animal models and clinical trials in cancer treatment. American Journal of Translational Research, 6(2), 114-118.
Link:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902221/
Keywords:
Animal models, translational studies, clinical trials, cancer, review, bias, mice, mouse
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Makowska, I. J., & Weary, D. M. (2013). Assessing the emotions of laboratory rats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 148(1–2), 1-12.
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168159113001913
Keywords:
Rats, animal welfare
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Makowska, I. J., & Weary, D. M. (2016). The importance of burrowing, climbing and standing upright for laboratory rats. Open Science, 3(6)
Link:
http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royopensci/3/6/160136.full.pdf
Keywords:
Environmental enrichment, housing, rats
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Organs-on-Chips with combined multi-electrode array and transepithelial electrical resistance measurement capabilities
Link:
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2017/LC/C7LC00412E
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research, organ-on-a-chip
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Marino, L., & Mountain, M. (2014). Denial of death and the relationship between humans and other animals. Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals, Fast tracked online: October 17, 2014.
Link:
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bloomsbury/azoos/pre-prints/content-281_anthrozoos_fta
Keywords:
Ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Marks, J. (2011). Innocent and innocuous: The case against animal research. Between the Species, 13(10).
Link:
http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/bts/vol13/iss10/7/
Keywords:
Ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Martic-Kehl, M. I., Schibli, R., & Schubiger, P. A. (2012). Can animal data predict human outcome? Problems and pitfalls of translational animal research. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 39(9), 1492-1496.
Link:
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00259-012-2175-z
Keywords:
Research bias, animal model, species specificity
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Martinez-Sanchez, E., & Leech, K. (2015). The challenging road towards a unified animal research network in Europe. PLoS Biology, 13(5), e1002157.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1002157
Keywords:
Transparency, animal models, European Animal Research Association
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Massa, S., Sakr, M. A., Seo, J., Bandaru, P., Arneri, A., Bersini, S., et al. (2017). Bioprinted 3D vascularized tissue model for drug toxicity analysis. Biomicrofluidics, 11(4), 044109
Link:
https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4994708
Keywords:
Liver, alternatives to animal research, toxicology
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Mathur, A., Loskill, P., Shao, K., Huebsch, N., Hong, S., Marcus, S. G., et al. (2015). Human iPSC-based cardiac microphysiological system for drug screening applications. Scientific Reports, 5.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep08883
Keywords:
Alternatives, 3Rs
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Matthews, K., Christmas, D., Swan, J., & Sorrell, E. (2005). Animal models of depression: navigating through the clinical fog. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(4–5), 503-513
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763405000345
Keywords:
Animal experiments, bias, animal model, neuroscience, depression
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Medical Research Modernization Committee. (2006). A critical look at animal experimentation. Cleveland, Ohio: MRMC.
Link:
http://www.mrmcmed.org/Critical_Look.pdf
Keywords:
Ethics, research bias, animal model
Record type:
Report
Citation
Menache, A. (2016). The European Citizens’ Stop Vivisection Initiative and the revision of Directive 2010/63/EU. ATLA, 44, 383-390
Link:
http://antidote-europe.org/public/ATLA2016.pdf
Keywords:
Directive 2010/63/EU revision, European Citizens’ Initiative
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Menache, A., & Nastrucci, C. (2012). REACH, animal testing, and the precautionary principle. Medicolegal and Bioethics, 2(1), 13-29.
Link:
http://www.dovepress.com/reach-animal-testing-and-the-precautionary-principle-peer-reviewed-article-MB
Keywords:
Regulation, chemicals
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Mogil, J. S., & Chanda, M. L. (2005). The case for the inclusion of female subjects in basic science studies of pain. Pain, 117(1–2), 1-5
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304395905003209
Keywords:
Sex differences, formalin, animal model, bias
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Mullane, K., & Williams, M. (2014). Bias in research: the rule rather than the exception? Editors' Update. Elsevier(17 September).
Link:
http://editorsupdate.elsevier.com/issue-40-september-2013/bias-in-research-the-rule-rather-than-the-exception/
Keywords:
Bias
Record type:
Expert Opinion
Citation
National Centre for the Replacement Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research. (2006). NC3Rs guidelines. Primate accommodation, care and use: NC3Rs.
Link:
http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/Guidelines/NC3Rs%20guidelines%20-%20Primate%20accommodation%20care%20and%20use.pdf
Keywords:
Non-human primates, policy, code of practice
Record type:
Report
Citation
National Health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Australian code for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes. 8th Edition 2013. Canberra: NHMRC, Australian Government.
Link:
https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines/publications/ea28
Keywords:
Code of practice, regulation, ethics, 3Rs, animal ethics committees
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
National Health and Medical Research Council. (2014). A guideline to the care and use of Australian native mammals in research and teaching. Canberra: NHMRC.
Link:
https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines/publications/ea29
Keywords:
Code of practice, ethics, regulation, native mammals
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
National Health and Medical Research Council. (2016). Principles and guidelines for the care and use of non-human primates for scientific purposes. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Government
Link:
https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines-publications/ea15
Keywords:
Non-human primates, monkeys, guidelines, animal welfare
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
Nesmith, A. P., Wagner, M. A., Pasqualini, F. S., O’Connor, B. B., Pincus, M. J., August, P. R., et al. (2016). A human in vitro model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy muscle formation and contractility. The Journal of Cell Biology.
Link:
http://jcb.rupress.org/content/early/2016/09/28/jcb.201603111
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Nobis, N. (2011). The harmful, nontherapeutic use of animals in research is morally wrong. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 342(4), 297-304.
Link:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21952174
Keywords:
Ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Nuffield Council on Bioethics. (2005). The ethics of research involving animals. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics.
Link:
http://nuffieldbioethics.org/project/animal-research/
Keywords:
Ethics
Record type:
Report
Citation
O'Connor, M. D. (2013). The 3R principle: advancing clinical application of human pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 4(2), 21-21.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3706962/
Keywords:
3Rs, stem cells
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Ormandy, E., & Schuppli, C. (2014). Public attitudes toward animal research: A review. Animals, 4(3), 391-408.
Link:
http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/4/3/391
Keywords:
Public opinion
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Passini, E., Britton, O. J., Lu, H. R., Rohrbacher, J., Hermans, A. N., Gallacher, D. J., et al. (2017). Human in silico drug trials demonstrate higher accuracy than animal models in predicting clinical pro-arrhythmic cardiotoxicity. Frontiers in Physiology, 8(668)
Link:
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2017.00668
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research, in silico, drug trials, drug safety, drug cardiotoxicity, computer models
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Peggs, K. (2015). An insufferable business: Ethics, nonhuman animals and biomedical experiments. Animals, 5(3), 0376.
Link:
http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/5/3/0376
Keywords:
Anthropocentric, biomedical, business, ethics, experiments, nonhuman animals, profits
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Pew Research Center. (2015). Public and scientists' views on science and society: Pew Research Center.
Link:
http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/01/29/public-and-scientists-views-on-science-and-society/
Keywords:
Public opinion
Record type:
Data & Statistics,Report
Citation
Phillips, M. T. (1994). Proper names and the social construction of biography: The negative case of laboratory animals. Qualitative Sociology, 17(2), 119-142.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02393497
Keywords:
animals in the laboratory
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Pistollato, F., Ohayon, E. L., Lam, A., Langley, G. R., Novak, T. J., Pamies, D., et al. (2016). Alzheimer disease research in the 21st century: past and current failures, new perspectives and funding priorities. Oncotarget, 7(26), 38999-39016
Link:
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9175
Keywords:
Alternatives, bias
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Pleiner, T., Bates, M., & Görlich, D. (2017). A toolbox of anti–mouse and anti–rabbit IgG secondary nanobodies. The Journal of Cell Biology(20 December)
Link:
http://jcb.rupress.org/content/early/2017/12/19/jcb.201709115
Keywords:
Alternatives, secondary nanobodies, antibodies
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Pols, S., Henneberg, M., & Norris, R. (2016). Cranial arterial patterning in greyhounds: Another case of internal intraspecific variation. Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 45(3), 161-172
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ahe.12182
Keywords:
Greyhound dogs, cardiovascular system
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Pound, P., & Bracken, M. B. (2014). Is animal research sufficiently evidence based to be a cornerstone of biomedical research? British Medical Journal, 348(30 May).
Link:
http://www.bmj.com/content/348/bmj.g3387
Keywords:
Research bias, animal model, species specificity
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Pound, P., Ebrahim, S., Sandercock, P., Bracken, M. B., & Roberts, I. (2004). Where is the evidence that animal research benefits humans? British Medical Journal, 328(7438), 514-517
Link:
http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7438/514
Keywords:
animal experiments, flaws in animal research, animal model, species specificity
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Prieto, P., Burton, J., Graepel, R., Price, A., Whelan, M., & Worth, A. (2014). EURL ECVAM strategy to replace, reduce and refine the use of animals in the assessment of acute mammalian systemic toxicity. Luxembourg: European Commission. Joint Research Centre. Institute for Health and Consumer Protection.
Link:
https://eurl-ecvam.jrc.ec.europa.eu/news/acute-mammalian-systemic-toxicity-testing-eurl-ecvam-releases-its-strategy
Keywords:
3Rs, alternatives, toxicity testing, validation, regulation
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
Prill, S., Bavli, D., Levy, G., Ezra, E., Schmälzlin, E., Jaeger, M., et al. (2015). Real-time monitoring of oxygen uptake in hepatic bioreactor shows CYP450-independent mitochondrial toxicity of acetaminophen and amiodarone. Archives of Toxicology, 1-11.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-015-1537-2
Keywords:
Alternatives, liver on chip
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, Montreal 2011. (2011).
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/ALTEX-Proceedings/Proceedings.98.html?iid=2
Keywords:
Alternatives
Record type:
Conference Proceedings
Citation
Ramalli Jr., E. L., Ho, W., Alves, M., & Rocha, E. M. (2012). Progress in animal experimentation ethics: a case study from a Brazilian medical school and from the international medical literature. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira, 27, 659-663.
Link:
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-86502012000900012&nrm=iso
Keywords:
Brazil, ethics, law
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Reardon, S. (2016). A mouse’s house may ruin studies. Environmental factors lie behind many irreproducible rodent experiments. Nature News (12 February).
Link:
http://www.nature.com/news/a-mouse-s-house-may-ruin-experiments-1.19335
Keywords:
Bias, mouse, laboratory environment
Record type:
Expert Opinion
Citation
Rice, M. J. (2011). The institutional review board is an impediment to human research: the result is more animal-based research. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, 6, 12.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3127833/
Keywords:
Animal Ethics Committee, bias, regulation
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Ritskes-Hoitinga, M., & Green, S. (2014). How predictive and productive is animal research? British Medical Journal, 348(g3719 ).
Link:
http://www.bmj.com/%5Bfield_highwire_a_cpath-raw%5D-15/rr/703339
Keywords:
Animal models, clinical trials, bias, 10Rs+
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Roi, A. J., & Grune, B. (2013). Good search practice on animal alternatives. Re-edition. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Commission.
Link:
http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/the-eurl-ecvam-search-guide-pbLBN124391/
Keywords:
Alternatives, 3Rs
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
Rosenfeldt, F., Ou, R., Salamonsen, R., Marasco, S., Zimmet, A., Byrne, J., et al. (2016). A novel combination technique of cold crystalloid perfusion but not cold storage facilitates transplantation of canine hearts donated after circulatory death. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Link:
http://www.jhltonline.org/article/S1053-2498(16)30068-7/abstract
Keywords:
Heart transplantation, greyhound dogs, perfusion, preservation
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Rowan, A. N. (2015). Ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and risk evaluation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(04), 448-458.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180115000109
Keywords:
Ethics, safety testing, pharmaceuticals, household products, pesticides, industrial chemicals
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Russell, D. (2012). Why animal ethics committees don't work. Between the Species, 15(1).
Link:
http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/bts/vol15/iss1/8/
Keywords:
Animal ethics committees
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Saito, H., & Gill, C. J. (2014). How frequently do the results from completed US clinical trials enter the public domain? - A statistical analysis of the ClinicalTrials.gov database. PLoS ONE, 9(7), e101826.
Link:
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0101826
Keywords:
Reporting bias
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Salamonsen, R. F., Lim, E., Moloney, J., Lovell, N. H., & Rosenfeldt, F. L. (2015). Anatomy and physiology of left ventricular suction induced by rotary blood pumps. Artificial Organs, 39(8), 681-690
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aor.12550
Keywords:
Rotary blood pump, greyhound dogs, heart failure
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study

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