Research Papers

Need help understanding the facts about animal experiments? There are many resources available – academic papers, systematic reviews and conference proceedings - that provide credible references as to why animals are not good models for human medicines.

The following list provides links to such items we believe can assist you.

Citation
Sapontzis, S. F. (1988). On justifying the exploitation of animals in research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 13(2), 177-196.
Link:
http://jmp.oxfordjournals.org/content/13/2/177.abstract
Keywords:
Ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Schiffelers, M.-J. W. A., Blaauboer, B. J., Bakker, W. E., Beken, S., Hendriksen, C. F. M., Koëter, H. B. W. M., et al. (2014). Regulatory acceptance and use of 3R models for pharmaceuticals and chemicals: Expert opinions on the state of affairs and the way forward. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 69(1), 41-48.
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230014000312
Keywords:
3Rs, drug testing, regulation
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Schmidt, B. Z., Lehmann, M., Gutbier, S., Nembo, E., Noel, S., Smirnova, L., et al. (2016). In vitro acute and developmental neurotoxicity screening: an overview of cellular platforms and high-throughput technical possibilities. Archives of Toxicology, 1-33
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-016-1805-9
Keywords:
Stem cells, neurodevelopment, electrophysiology, cell death, high-throughput screening, assay development,in vitro testing, neurotoxicity, developmental neurotoxicity, alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Scholz, F. M., Muse, R., & Burrows, A. K. (2015). Focal metatarsal fistulae syndrome affecting a greyhound dog successfully treated with topical 0.1% tacrolimus ointment. Veterinary Dermatology, 26(6), 488-e116
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12243
Keywords:
Greyhound dogs, focal metatarsal fistulae syndrome
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Schuppli, C. A., & Weary, D. M. (2010). Attitudes towards the use of genetically modified animals in research. Public Understanding of Science, 19(6), 686-697.
Link:
http://pus.sagepub.com/content/19/6/686.abstract
Keywords:
Public opinion
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Schwartz, M. P., Hou, Z., Propson, N. E., Zhang, J., Engstrom, C. J., Costa, V. S., et al. (2015). Human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural constructs for predicting neural toxicity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Link:
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/09/15/1516645112.abstract
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Sena, E. S., van der Worp, H. B., Bath, P. M. W., Howells, D. W., & Macleod, M. R. (2010). Publication bias in reports of animal stroke studies leads to major overstatement of efficacy. PLoS Biology, 8(3), e1000344.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1000344
Keywords:
Publication bias
Record type:
Review
Citation
Şentürk, H. (2015). Moving beyond animal models. Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology.
Link:
http://www.turkjgastroenterol.org/sayilar/288/buyuk/From%20the%20Editor%20%20y.pdf
Keywords:
Animal model, mouse, mice, bias
Record type:
Editorial
Citation
Seok, J., Warren, H. S., Cuenca, A. G., Mindrinos, M. N., Baker, H. V., Xu, W., et al. (2013). Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(9), 3507–3512.
Link:
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/02/07/1222878110.abstract
Keywords:
Research bias, mouse, mice, animal model, species specificity
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Shanks, N., Greek, R., & Greek, J. (2009). Are animal models predictive for humans? Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, 4(1), 2.
Link:
http://www.peh-med.com/content/4/1/2
Keywords:
Research bias, drug testing, drug safety, animal model, species specificity
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Shaw, D., Dondorp, W., Geijsen, N., & de Wert, G. (2014). Creating human organs in chimaera pigs: an ethical source of immunocompatible organs? Journal of Medical Ethics.
Link:
http://jme.bmj.com/content/early/2014/11/05/medethics-2014-102224.abstract
Keywords:
Ethics, pigs
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Silla, V. C., de Oliveira Sans, E. C., & Molento, C. F. (2010). An estimation of the extent of animal use in research in Brazil, as determined by bibliographic sampling from journals published in the State of Parana. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 38(1), 29-37.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20377302
Keywords:
Brazil, alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Sluch, V. M., Davis, C.-h. O., Ranganathan, V., Kerr, J. M., Krick, K., Martin, R., et al. (2015). Differentiation of human ESCs to retinal ganglion cells using a CRISPR engineered reporter cell line. Scientific Reports, 5, 16595.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep16595
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research, in vitro human nerve cell model
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Sørensen, D. B. (2014). Shedding ultraviolet light on welfare in laboratory rodents: suggestions for further research and refinement. Animal Welfare, 23(3), 259-261.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.7120/09627286.23.3.259
Keywords:
Animal welfare, housing, mice, vision, 3Rs
Record type:
Citation
Sorge, R. E., Martin, L. J., Isbester, K. A., Sotocinal, S. G., Rosen, S., Tuttle, A. H., et al. (2014). Olfactory exposure to males, including men, causes stress and related analgesia in rodents. Nature Methods, 11, 629–632.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2935
Keywords:
Research bias, mouse, mice, animal model
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Sousa, A. M. M., Zhu, Y., Raghanti, M. A., Kitchen, R. R., Onorati, M., Tebbenkamp, A. T. N., et al. (2017). Molecular and cellular reorganization of neural circuits in the human lineage. Science, 358(6366), 1027-1032
Link:
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6366/1027
Keywords:
Bias, non-human primates
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Stanton, K., & Kruszewski, F. H. (2016). Quantifying the benefits of using read-across and in silico techniques to fulfill hazard data requirements for chemical categories. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 81, 250-259
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230016302525
Keywords:
In silico, category approach, read-across, trend analysis, (Q)SAR, HPV, alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Steiniger, B. S. (2015). Human spleen microanatomy: why mice do not suffice. Immunology, 145(3), 334-346.
Link:
dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.12469
Keywords:
Bias, human spleen, rat and mouse spleen, sheathed capillaries, splenic follicles, splenic stromal cells
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Strickland, J., Clippinger, A. J., Brown, J., Allen, D., Jacobs, A., Matheson, J., et al. (2018). Status of acute systemic toxicity testing requirements and data uses by U.S. regulatory agencies. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 94, 183-196
Link:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230018300382
Keywords:
Alternatives, regulatory requirements, acute systemic toxicity, in silico
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Strittmatter, S. (2017). Undervaluation of suffering of experimental animals in Germany. Altex, 34(3), 435-438.
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/resources/altex_2017_3_435_438_Letter_Strittmatter1.pdf
Keywords:
Directive 2010/63/EU, non-technical summaries (NTS), severity of suffering, Germany
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Sullivan, K. (2016). It takes a village: Stakeholder participation is essential to transforming science. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 44(5), 411-415.
Link:
http://www.atla.org.uk/it-takes-a-village-stakeholder-participation-is-essential-to-transforming-science/
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Sullivan, K. M., Aggarwal, M., Akins, J. M., Fabian, E., Heylings, J. R., Raabe, H., et al. (2017). Dermal absorption for pesticide health risk assessment: Harmonization of study design and data reporting for North American Regulatory submissions. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 90, 197-205
Link:
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.09.012
Keywords:
Dermal absorption, in vitro, pesticide, risk assessment, alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper,Report
Citation
Sumner, P., Vivian-Griffiths, S., Boivin, J., Williams, A., Venetis, C. A., Davies, A., et al. (2014). The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study. British Medical Journal, 349.
Link:
http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g7015
Keywords:
Evidence bias
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Tang-Schomer, M. D., White, J. D., Tien, L. W., Schmitt, L. I., Valentin, T. M., Graziano, D. J., et al. (2014). Bioengineered functional brain-like cortical tissue. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(38), 13811–13816.
Link:
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/08/06/1324214111.abstract
Keywords:
Alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Taylor, K. (2010). Reporting the implementation of the Three Rs in European primate and mouse research papers: are we making progress? Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 38(6), 495-517
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Taylor_3Rs%20reporting_ATLA_2010.pdf
Keywords:
Animal welfare, alternatives, methods
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Taylor, K. (2014). EU member state government contribution to alternative methods. Altex(2).
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/All-issues/Issue.50.html?iid=149&aid=6
Keywords:
Alternatives, European Union
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Taylor, K., & Balls, M. (2014). Wider recommendations for institutions made in the Brown Report following the BUAV investigation into the use of animals at Imperial College London. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 42(5), 335-342
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Taylor_Balls_Brown_Imperial_ATLA_2014.pdf
Keywords:
Animal welfare, ethics, leadership
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Taylor, K., & Rego, L. (2016). EU statistics on animal experiments for 2014. ALTEX, 33(4).
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/resources/altex_2016_4_465_468_Letter_Taylor11.pdf
Keywords:
Directive 2010/63/EU, European Union, statistics
Record type:
Academic Paper,Data & Statistics
Citation
Taylor, K., Andrew, D. J., & Rego, L. (2014). The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 69(3), 320-332
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Taylor_28%20day%20for%2090%20day_RegToxicolPharmacol_2014.pdf
Keywords:
3Rs, REACH, chemicals legislation, alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Taylor, K., Casalegno, C., & Stengel, W. (2011). A critique of the EC's expert (draft) reports on the status of alternatives for cosmetics testing to meet the 2013 deadline. Altex, 28(2), 131-148
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Taylor_cosmeticsreportcritique_ALTEX_2011_0.pdf
Keywords:
Animal welfare legislation, alternatives, cosmetics, toxicity, EU, expert testimony
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Taylor, K., Gordon, N., Langley, G., & Higgins, W. (2008). Estimates for worldwide laboratory animal use in 2005. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 36(3), 327-342
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Tayloretal_worldestimates_2008_%20ATLA.pdf
Keywords:
Genetically modified, legislation & jurisprudence
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Taylor, K., Stengel, W., Casalegno, C., & Andrew, D. (2014). Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing. Altex, 31(2), 107-128
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Taylor_testing%20proposals_ALTEX_2014.pdf
Keywords:
Public policy, EU, vertebrates, chemical industry/legislation & jurisprudence/standards
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
ter Riet, G., Korevaar, D. A., Leenaars, M., Sterk, P. J., Van Noorden, C. J. F., Bouter, L. M., et al. (2012). Publication bias in laboratory animal research: A survey on magnitude, drivers, consequences and potential solutions. PLoS ONE, 7(9), e43404.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0043404
Keywords:
Publication bias
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Timms, M., Steel, R., & Vine, J. (2016). Identification of recombinant human EPO variants in greyhound plasma and urine by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and western blotting: a comparative study. Drug Testing and Analysis, 8(2), 164-176
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.1835
Keywords:
Greyhound dogs, erythropoietin, western blotting
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Timoshanko, A. C., Marston, H., & Lidbury, B. A. (2017). Australian regulation of animal use in science and education: A critical appraisal ILAR Journal, 57(3), 324-332
Link:
https://academic.oup.com/ilarjournal/article-abstract/57/3/324/3796585/Australian-Regulation-of-Animal-Use-in-Science-and
Keywords:
Scientific or educational animal use, animal testing, Australia, regulation, replacement, 3Rs, transparency
Record type:
Expert Opinion,Review
Citation
Tong, Z.-B., Hogberg, H., Kuo, D., Sakamuru, S., Xia, M., Smirnova, L., et al. (2016). Characterization of three human cell line models for high-throughput neuronal cytotoxicity screening. Journal of Applied Toxicology
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3334
Keywords:
Alternatives, LUHMES, SH-SY5Y, neural stem cells, neurotoxicity, neurotoxicant, apoptosis, differentiation
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Tsilidis, K. K., Panagiotou, O. A., Sena, E. S., Aretouli, E., Evangelou, E., Howells, D. W., et al. (2013). Evaluation of excess significance bias in animal studies of neurological diseases. PLoS Biology, 11(7), e1001609.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001609
Keywords:
Significance bias
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Tyler, A. (2015). The scientific case against the use of animals in biomedical research. UK: Animal Aid.
Link:
http://www.animalaid.org.uk/images/victimsofcharity/AMRCreport.pdf
Keywords:
Species specificity, bias, flaws in animal research
Record type:
Report
Citation
van den Brink, F. T. G., Wigger, T., Ma, L., Odijk, M., Olthuis, W., Karst, U., et al. (2016). Oxidation and adduct formation of xenobiotics in a microfluidic electrochemical cell with boron doped diamond electrodes and an integrated passive gradient rotation mixer. Lab on a Chip, 16(20), 3990-4001
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6LC00708B
Keywords:
Alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
van der Worp, H. B., Howells, D. W., Sena, E. S., Porritt, M. J., Rewell, S., O'Collins, V., et al. (2010). Can animal models of disease reliably inform human studies? PLoS Medicine, 7(3), e1000245.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000245
Keywords:
Research bias, animal model, species specificity
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
van Esbroeck, A. C. M., Janssen, A. P. A., Cognetta, A. B., Ogasawara, D., Shpak, G., van der Kroeg, M., et al. (2017). Activity-based protein profiling reveals off-target proteins of the FAAH inhibitor BIA 10-2474. Science, 356(6342), 1084-1087.
Link:
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/356/6342/1084
Keywords:
Bias, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), human-based model
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Varga, O., Hansen, A. K., Sandøe, P., & Olsson, I. A. S. (2010). Improving transparency and ethical accountability in animal studies. Three ways to link ethical approvals to publications. EMBO reports, 11(7), 500-503.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897124/pdf/embor201091.pdf
Keywords:
Ethics, transparency
Record type:
Report
Citation
von Roten, F. C. (2009). European attitudes towards animal research: Overview and consequences for science. Science Technology & Society, 14(2), 349-364.
Link:
http://sts.sagepub.com/content/14/2/349.abstract
Keywords:
Public opinion
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
von Roten, F. C. (2013). Public perceptions of animal experimentation across Europe. Public Understanding of Science, 22(6), 691-703.
Link:
http://pus.sagepub.com/content/22/6/691.abstract
Keywords:
Public opinion
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Vonk, R. A. A., van de Laar, C. W. E., Hegger, I., Ezendam, J., Janssen, S. W. J., & Hoebert, J. M. (2015). Legal barriers for the use of alternatives to animal testing: do current EU regulations and guidelines for regulatory acceptance of medicinal products pose legal barriers? RIVM Letter report 2015-0084. Netherlands: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport.
Link:
http://www.rivm.nl/Documenten_en_publicaties/Wetenschappelijk/Rapporten/2015/juli/Legal_barriers_for_the_use_of_alternatives_to_animal_testing_do_current_EU_regulations_and_guidelines_for_regulatory_acceptance_of_medicinal_products_pose_legal_barriers
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research, validation
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
Wall, R. J., & Shani, M. (2008). Are animal models as good as we think? Theriogenology, 69(1), 2-9.
Link:
http://www.theriojournal.com/article/S0093-691X%2807%2900598-5/abstract
Keywords:
Animal model, species specificity, research bias
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Wang, L., Xu, C., Zhu, Y., Yu, Y., Sun, N., Zhang, X., et al. (2015). Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beating cardiac tissues on paper. Lab on a Chip, 15(22), 4283-4290.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C5LC00919G
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research, vivisection
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Warner, Claire E., Kwan, William C., Wright, D., Johnston, Leigh A., Egan, Gary F., & Bourne, James A. (2015). Preservation of vision by the pulvinar following early-life primary visual cortex lesions. Current Biology, 25(4), 424-434.
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982214016315
Keywords:
Primates, marmosets, animal model
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Wendler, D. (2014). Should protections for research with humans who cannot consent apply to research with nonhuman primates? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 35(2), 157-173.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11017-014-9285-5
Keywords:
Ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Whittaker, A. (2014). Animal research regulation in Australia - Does it pass the test of robustness? Global Journal of Animal Law(1).
Link:
http://www.gjal.abo.fi/gjal-content/2014-01/article3/Whittaker%20FINAL.pdf
Keywords:
Law, legislation, regulation, animal welfare, AEC, animal ethics committee, transparency
Record type:
Academic Paper

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