Resources for Alternatives to Classroom Animal Dissection & Animal Experimentation

Literature and Information on Alternatives in Education

Advances in Medical Education

Type: Video

Description: Harvard medical school has introduced an alternative to traditional ‘dog labs', allowing students to observe live human cardiac bypass surgery instead.  Narrated by Henry Heimlich, M.D., the video provides an insight into the operating room practical and includes interviews the professor who designed the course, surgeons and physicians and the students whose concerns prompted the change.

Alternatives in Education – New Approaches for a New Millennium

Type : Video

Description: This video demonstrates state-of-the-art alternatives to classical experiments in anatomy, pharmacology, physiology and surgery where conventional animal use is replaced by a range of alternative teaching methods.

Beyond Dissection

Type: Book

Description: This book/catalogue provides details on a range of resources available as alternatives to the use of animals in teaching.  Product information includes target educational level.

From Guinea Pig to Computer Mouse - Second Edition

Type: Book (by Nick Jukes and Mihnea Chiviq)

Description: A reference guide to hundreds of alternatives.  From state-of-the-art computer simulations to models and film, it describes each product's practical application, specifications and source.

Innovations in Trauma Training

Type: Video

Description: This video details the use of life-like simulators and human cadavers as alternatives to animal use in trauma training classes at Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems.  Includes interviews with course director and participants.

The Use of Animals in Higher Education

Type: Book -Education: Problems, Alternatives, and Recommendations (Jonathon Balcombe, PhD)

Description: This book thoroughly explores the issue of the use of animals in education, providing clear and concise arguments against animal use.  Includes information on alternatives to the use of animals in education.  Also offers a useful list of studies that have compared learning outcomes of students using alternatives against students performing classical experiments.  A must read for students wishing to voice their conscientious objections.

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Alternatives to Dissection

CatWorks: Cat Dissection Simulation

Type: CD-ROM

Education Level : Senior Secondary – Tertiary

Description: Students perform accurate, electronic dissections of the cat.  Real photographs and QuickTime videos illustrate selected components of actual dissections with spoken descriptions of the procedures being performed.  This program also includes printable schematic graphics, glossary, quizzes and electronic lab practicals.  Also includes a histology section with high-quality, digitalised microscopic images of important tissues and structures.  CatWorks may be useful as an alternative to laboratory dissection or as a prelab activity or postlab reinforcement tool.

System Requirements: Macintosh or IBM.

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Computer

Type: Computer Program for Macintosh

Education Level: Secondary

Description: A simulation of the entire process of a rat dissection.  Accompanied by an instruction booklet.

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Digital Frog 2

Type: CD-ROM

Education Level:   Secondary – early Tertiary

Description: An interactive dissection program that enables students to learn about frog anatomy and ecology.  Animations and interactive features allow students to see how the frog's body works, from blood pumping through the heart to joints that can be built up and moved by the user.  Features include full-motion and full screen video; animations; sounds; narrations; in-depth text; integrated dictionary and still images.  There are three modules within the program.  The dissection module allows students to perform dissections using a digital scalpel and performing the correct incisions.  The anatomy module is linked to the dissection module.  An ecology section provides an insight into species diversity, frog calls, behaviour and lifestyle.

System Requirements:

MAC version: Macintosh LCII, 16Mhz 68030 (Power PC is ideal), 5 MB RAM; 2 MB hard disk space for Quick Time and 2.5 MB hard disk space for the Digital Frog 2 application, CD-ROM Drive, System 7.1 or higher and screen capable of displaying at least 640x480 resolution, 256 colours.

PC version: 386/25Mhz processor or higher (Pentium or better is ideal), 8 MB RAM (16MB is recommended), 2 application, CD-ROM drive, Windows 3.1, 95 or 98, VGA or SVGA display running at least 640x480 with 256 colours, sound card recommended and mouse. 

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Dissectionworks Deluxe

Type: CD-ROM
Education Level : Secondary – early Tertiary
Description: A comprehensive and interactive preparation for, or alternative to, laboratory dissection.  Complete ventral and dorsal dissections of the frog, earthworm, crayfish, perch and foetal pig are available separately or on one CD-ROM.  The user selects the correct tools and performs step-by-step dissection procedures.  Other features include realistic photographs, printable diagrams, labelled schematics of the major body systems, information on organ structure and function, glossary and video clips of actual dissection procedures.
System Requirements: Macintosh with System 6.0.7 or higher, 8 MB RAM and 256-colour monitor (13 inches); IBM or compatible with 256 colour monitor, mouse, Windows 3.1 or higher and 8MB RAM.

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Fetal Pig

Type: CD-ROM
Education Level: Secondary
Description: This program provides a comprehensive investigation of the anatomical structures and biological functions common to mammals.  The major body systems are explored: skeletal; nervous; cardiovascular; reproductive and musculature systems.  Features include textual information linked to graphics and a quiz mode.
System Requirements: Macintosh or IBM. 

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Investigation of a Mammal: Rat

Type: Video
Education Level: Secondary – early Tertiary
Description: Allows a flexible approach to teaching and encourages student interaction.  The film is organised into sections: external organs and structures; circulatory system; respiratory system; digestive system; and urogenital system.  This allows the dissection to be viewed section by section, giving students more time to assimilate the extensive amount of information generated from a study of this type.  Enable students to view the circulatory and respiratory systems in motion and to view organs and structures.  Handouts provide answers to the questions and exercises interspersed throughout the video.  Further information about rats and other mammals, colour photographs and overheads of the different sections enhance the student's understanding of the organisation and connections between organs.

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Neotek 3D Frog Dissection Laboratory

Type: CD-ROM for PC, adaptor and 3D glasses included
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: The electronic liquid crystal glasses provide lifelike three-dimensional images that will make students want to reach out and touch them.  Each of the major systems are covered by this program: skeletal, musculature, nervous, digestive, circulatory, respiratory and reproduction.  Images are presented as micro-surgically prepared dissections.  Lectures, tutorials and quizzes are also built into the dissection lab.

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The Rat: A Functional Anatomy

Type: CD-ROM for PC
Education Level: Senior Secondary – Tertiary
Description: This program provides investigates the functional anatomy of the rat, exploring the major organ systems from an anatomical, physiological or histological perspective.  It also allows students to explore and identify the biological features of evolutionary significance that determine the position of mammals and other classes in the vertebrate kingdom.  The program includes video footage of the rat and dissection technique, over 100 histological slides (four different magnifications), diagrams, animations, text and spoken introductions.  The following systems are covered: digestive; circulatory; respiratory; urogenital, sense organs; the brain; and the skeletal system.
System Requirements: P166 processor, Microsoft Windows 95, 98, 2000, or NT4; DirectX Software component within Windows; 16 MB RAM (32 MB recommended); 800x600 Display resolution; 16 Bit Sound Card.  This CD is best displayed using 24 Bit (True Colour) display.

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The Rat Stack  

Type: Computer program for Macintosh
Education Level: Secondary – early Tertiary
Description: Highly interactive Hypercard stack teaching the functional anatomy of the rat.  It is suitable for independent learning, tutorial revision and could be used as a realistic alternative to animal dissection.  Scanned photographs and diagrams at different stages of dissection are presented comparable to removing layers to reveal the layer beneath.  Move the cursor across the image and annotations appear.  Organs or structures of interest can be selected to proceed with further dissection.  In some cases detailed anatomical and physiological information is available.  Additional features include a test mode and a user database for storing information.
System Requirements: Macintosh with Hypercard.

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Vertebrate Dissection Guide: (Dogfish, Frog, Pigeon, Rat)

Type:    Video (a separate video for each animal)
Education Level: Secondary – Tertiary
Description: The Vertebrate Dissection Guide series compares the anatomy of four of the most commonly used vertebrates in biological education.  The videos examine the live dogfish, frog, pigeon or rat, the external features and initial dissection techniques followed by a detailed investigation of the digestive system, circulatory system, urogenital systems, sense organs, the brain and the skeleton.  High quality macro photography is supplemented with graphic overlays and 3-dimensional computer animations to provide a comprehensive education resource.

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Vertebrate Dissection Guide: (Dogfish, Frog, Pigeon, Rat)

Type: (a separate CD- ROM for each animal)
Education Level: Secondary – Tertiary
Description:  This CD-ROM is based on the video, using video images and audio fragments to illustrate organ systems and demonstrate procedures.  This program has been designed to enhance a student's understanding of anatomy and physiology, from gross morphology to microscopic detail.  Students also explore biological features of evolutionary significance that determine the position of the different classes within the animal kingdom.   

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Visifrog  

Type: CD-ROM for Macintosh
Education Level: Secondary
Description: This program explores the functional anatomy of the frog covering the major body systems: circulatory; digestive; respiratory; urogenital; nervous; skeletal and muscular systems.  Digital images, colour graphics, textual information and quizzes provide a comprehensive overview of frog anatomy.
System Requirements: Macintosh, Windows 95 or 3.1, Apple IIe, GS, DOS and Apple eMate (Newton OS).

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Alternatives to Physiology Experiments

Cat Nictitating Membrane 

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary - Medical, Pharmacology & Pharmacy students
Description: This interactive program simulates experiments on the superior cervical ganglion-nictitating membrane preparation of the cat (in vivo) to teach the pharmacology of ganglionic transmission and sympathetically innervated smooth muscle. The program is divided into several components: Introduction, Tutorial and Experiments.  Students may manipulate many of the experimental parameters (eg. agent and site of administration).
System requirements: IBM PC

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Finkleman Preparation     

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary – Pharmacology, Pharmacy or Medicine students
Description: This program simulates a variety of experiments performed on the isolated, innervated small intestine of the rabbit (the Finkleman preparation).  The effects of adrenergic and other drugs and the effects of electrically stimulating sympathetic nerves are investigated.  Data is derived from real experiments and presented on a chart recorder-like display.
System Requirements: IBM PC

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Frog Skin 

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary – Physiology students
Description: This program simulates experiments performed on the frog skin preparation designed to teach the principles of epithelial transport of ions.  Experiments investigate active and passive transport in the presence or absence of particular drugs.  Students manipulate certain experimental parameters and read results off simulated measurement apparatus.
System Requirements: IBM PC

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Guinea Pig Ileum

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary – Pharmacology students
Description: This program aims to teach the pharmacology of intestinal smooth muscle and the enteric nervous system through simulation of the transmurally stimulated guinea pig ileum preparation.  Students manipulate a variety of parameters: voltage, frequency/duration of stimulation and drugs/dosages administered.  Results are displayed in a form similar to a data recorder.
System Requirements: IBM PC 

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Intestinal Absorption  

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary – Physiology students
Description: This program simulates experiments illustrating one of the classical in vitro preparations used to study intestinal absorption - the isolated, everted intestinal sac of the rat.  Simulated experiments are designed to demonstrate the important characteristics of the transport of hexoses and amino acids, in the small intestine.  The experimental data is based on experimentally verified predictive models of carrier-mediated transport.  Students calculate transport parameters (eg. mucosal fluid transfer & total amount of nutrient transferred) from the data they have collected.
System requirements: IBM PC

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Intestinal Motility

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary – Physiology students
Description: A computer simulation of experiments to demonstrate the effects of colonic peristalsis using the isolated rat colon.  This program includes animated representations of the experimental apparatus and chart recorder.  Students explore the effects of a range of drugs on the preparation by observing basal activity and the peristaltic reflex response.
System Requirements: IBM PC/PS2 compatible with graphics card (VGA, EGA or Hercules).

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Langendorff Heart 

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary – Medical, Pharmacology and Pharmacy students
Description: This interactive program simulates experiments that can be performed on the isolated, perfused mammalian heart (Langendorff preparation).  Students may choose from a range of experiments: the effects of various drugs; the effects of ions and the effects on increasing pre-load on contractile force.  Data is derived from actual experimental data and is presented in a form similar to a chart recorder.
System Requirements: IBM PC 

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Muscle Physiology

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: This interactive program simulates experiments on the gastrocnemius muscle of the frog.  Physiological properties of skeletal muscle are explored: tetanus; summation; stimulus voltage/response; length/tension and action of curare.  Data derived from real experiments is presented in a format similar to an oscilloscope.
System Requirements: IBM PC

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Nerve Physiology

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: This interactive program illustrates the important properties of mixed nerves using simulated experiments on the sciatic nerve of the frog.  Experiments explore stimulus/voltage response; refractory period; conduction velocity; temperature and the action of local anaesthetic.  Data is derived from real experiments and is displayed on a simulated oscilloscope screen.
System Requirements: IBM PC

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Rat Blood Pressure

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: This program simulates a variety of experiments to demonstrate the effects of pharmacological agents/procedures on blood pressure and heart rate of the anaesthetised rat.  Students investigate and record the effects of various stimulants and depressors (eg. catecholamines; pressor agents; acetylcholine; ganglion stimulants and sympathetic nerve stimulation).
System Requirements: IBM PC

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Alternatives to Psychology Experiments

Alley Rat Pack. 

Type: Computer Program for PC
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: Simulates Hullian learning principles.  Allows manipulation of trials and sessions, hours of deprivation, reinforcement amount, and inter-trial interval.

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Psyche: Experiments That Changed Psychology

Type: CD-ROM
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: An interactive program that performs 16 classical psychology experiments investigating: behaviour in social situations; aspects of self; perception and attention; memory and learning and thinking.  Features include a glossary and a ‘brainlinks' section demonstrating functional link between experiment and part of brain.
System Requirements: Macintosh or IBM.

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Roverlov

Type: Computer Program for Mac
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: This program demonstrates the principle of Classical Conditioning, in a interactive manner allowing students to guide the experiments.  The following phenomena are explored: asymptotic acquisition curves; decelerating extinction curves; temporal contiguity effects; spontaneous recovery; conditioned inhibition and many more.  At completion of an experiment the program produces a report in journal format.
System Requirements: Macintosh

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Sniffy The Virtual Rat    

Type: Computer Program
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: This computer program offers a virtual laboratory experience, exploring the concept of ‘conditioning' in the rat.  Students investigate operant conditioning, classical conditioning, compound conditioning, inhibitory conditioning as well as other aspects of the psychology of learning.
System Requirements: Windows 95 or 98.  Requires at least 16MB of RAM (32MB preferred) and 10MB of hard drive space.  Macintosh Version requires MacOS System 7.5 or higher. Requires at least 16MB of RAM (32MB preferred) and 10MB of hard drive space.

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Alternatives for Veterinary Procedures Training

Anaesthesia of Rats   

Type: CD-ROM for PC
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: This program develops a student's skill in the use and application of anaesthetics.  The student is able to vary several determinants (eg. bodyweight & dosage) and to observe the effects of the drug (eg on reflexes & pupil size).  The student is trained in the procedures of anaesthesia, to calculate correct doses and to distinguish between anaesthetic drugs based on their properties.
System Requirements: IBM PC with Windows 95, 98 or 2000.

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Padject (Syringe Injection Practice Block)

Type: Model
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: This model is designed to practice intramuscular and subcutaneous injections.  Different density layers of foam are bonded together to simulate skin & flesh, providing a similar experience to the resistance experienced when performing an injection.
Website: www.padject.com.au

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Dog Abdominal Surrogate for Instructional Exercises (DASIE)

Type: Model
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: DASIE is a model designed to teach students to handle instruments and perform suture. Please note that special conditions apply to the loan of this resource.

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K-9 IV Trainer

Type: Model
Education Level: Tertiary
Description: This model is a realistic canine forearm designed to teach IV draw and injections.  Parts are life-like, disposable and cleanable.  A variety of accessories are included: IV pole; IV holder; 2 x IV reservoir bags; and artificial training blood.  Please note special conditions apply to the loan of this resource.

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Alternatives to Genetics Experiments

CAT Lab

Type: CD-ROM
Education Level: Senior Secondary - Tertiary
Description: An introductory genetics simulation on inheritance of colour, pattern and tail presence in cats.  The program covers the basics of single gene traits including dominant/recessive genes, incomplete dominance and autosomal & sex-linked gene traits.  Phenotypes are displayed with real cat photos and multilevel activities are offered.
System Requirements: A hybrid CD-ROM running on IBM and Macintosh computers. Requires 4MB, a hard disc, 256 colours and will run under Windows 3.1 or System 7. 

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