Research Papers

Need help understanding the facts about animal experiments? There are many resources available – academic papers, systematic reviews and conference proceedings – that provide credible references as to why animals are not good models for human medicines.

The following list provides links to such items we believe can assist you.

Citation: Abolins, S., King, E. C., Lazarou, L., Weldon, L., Hughes, L., Drescher, P., et al. (2017). The comparative immunology of wild and laboratory mice, Mus musculus domesticus. Nature Communications(3 May).
Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14811.pdf
Keywords: Bias, mouse model, mice
Record type: Academic Paper,Research Study

Citation: Abstracts of the 9th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, Prague, 2014. (24-28 August).
Link: http://www.altex.ch/ALTEX-Proceedings/Current-Proceedings.97.html
Keywords: Alternatives, 3Rs, animal model
Record type: Conference Proceedings

Citation: Akhtar, A. (2011). Animals and public health: Why treating animals better is critical to human welfare. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Link: http://www.palgraveconnect.com/pc/doifinder/10.1057/9780230358522
Keywords: Animal welfare, ethics, animal experiments, public health
Record type: Book

Citation: Akhtar, A. (2015). The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(04), 407-419.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180115000079
Keywords: Ethics, drug development, bias, species specificity, animal model
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Amerio, A., Gálvez, J. F., Odone, A., Dalley, S. A., & Ghaemi, S. N. (2015). Carcinogenicity of psychotropic drugs: A systematic review of US Food and Drug Administration–required preclinical in vivo studies
Link: http://anp.sagepub.com/content/49/8/686.abstract
Keywords: Psychotropic drugs, carcinogenicity, animal model, bias
Record type:

Citation: Amisten, S., Atanes, P., Hawkes, R., Ruz-Maldonado, I., Liu, B., Parandeh, F., et al. (2017). A comparative analysis of human and mouse islet G-protein coupled receptor expression. Scientific Reports, 7, 46600.
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5395952/pdf/srep46600.pdf
Keywords: Bias, mouse model, mice
Record type: Academic Paper, Research Study

Citation: Animal Justice Project USA, & Taxpayers Protection Alliance. (2016). Deadly doses: Exposing the Federal Government’s funding of the slaughter of millions of dollars & countless creatures: Animal Justice Project USA and Taxpayers Protection Alliance
Link: http://www.protectingtaxpayers.org/assets/files/Deadly%20Doses%20March%202016.pdf
Keywords: Recreational drugs, waste of taxes, rats, mice
Record type: Report

Citation: Archibald, K., Coleman, R., & Foster, C. (2011). Open letter to UK Prime Minister David Cameron and Health Secretary Andrew Lansley on safety of medicines. The Lancet, 377(9781), 1915.
Link: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2811%2960802-7/fulltext
Keywords: Animal experiments, drug safety, drug effectiveness
Record type: Expert Opinion

Citation: Bailey, J. (2009). An examination of chimpanzee use in human cancer research. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 37(4), 399-416
Link: https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_%20chimpanzees_cancer_ATLA_2009.pdf
Keywords: Animal welfare, chimpanzees, non-human primates, drug evaluation
Record type: Academic Paper,Review

Citation: Bailey, J. (2010). An assessment of the use of chimpanzees in hepatitis C research past, present and future: 1. Validity of the chimpanzee model. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 38(5), 387-418
Link: https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_hepC_future_1_ATLA_2010.pdf
Keywords: Viral hepatitis vaccines, immunology, animal models, alternatives
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Bailey, J. (2010). An assessment of the use of chimpanzees in hepatitis C research past, present and future: 2. Alternative replacement methods. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 38(6), 471-494
Link: https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_hepC_future_2_ATLA_2010.pdf
Keywords: Animal welfare, alternatives, hepatitis C, species specificity
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Bailey, J. (2011). Lessons from chimpanzee-based research on human disease: the implications of genetic differences. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 39(6), 527-540.
Link: http://www.atla.org.uk/category/atla39/atla39-6/
Keywords: Ethics, species specificity, drug safety, drug effectiveness, reproducibility of results
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Bailey, J. (2014). Monkey-based research on human disease: the implications of genetic differences. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA, 42(5), 287-317.
Link: http://www.atla.org.uk/monkey-based-research-on-human-disease-the-implications-of-genetic-differences/
Keywords: Animal model, epigenetics, gene expression, genetics, macaque, monkeys, species specificity
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Bailey, J., & Pereira, S. (2017). Advances in neuroscience imply that harmful experiments in dogs are unethical. Journal of Medical Ethics(24 July online).
Link: http://jme.bmj.com/content/early/2017/07/23/medethics-2016-103630
Keywords: Ethics, neuroscience
Record type: Academic Paper,Expert Opinion

Citation: Bailey, J., & Taylor, K. (2009). The SCHER report on non-human primate research – biased and deeply flawed. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 37(4), 427-435
Link: https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_Taylor_SCHERprimates_Comment_ATLA_2009.pdf
Keywords: Alternatives, ethics, legislation & jurisprudence/standards, drug evaluation, EU, primates, toxicity testing
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Bailey, J., & Taylor, K. (2016). Non-human primates in neuroscience research: The case against its scientific necessity. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals – ATLA, 44(1)
Link: https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_Taylor_primate%20neuroscience_ATLA_2016.pdf
Keywords: Primates
Record type: Academic Paper,Review

Citation: Bailey, J., Thew, M., & Balls, M. (2013). An analysis of the use of dogs in predicting human toxicology and drug safety. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA, 41(5), 335-350.
Link: http://altweb.jhsph.edu/pubs/journals/atla/41_5/41_5Bailey.pdf
Keywords: Alternatives, dogs, drug safety, drug effectiveness
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Bailey, J., Thew, M., & Balls, M. (2014). An analysis of the use of animal models in predicting human toxicology and drug safety. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA, 42(3), 181-199.
Link: https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_allspecies_toxicology_tox%20paper%202_ATLA_2014.pdf
Keywords: Drug safety, preclinical research, rats, mouse, mice, rabbits, unreliable research, bias, animal model, species specificity
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Bailey, J., Thew, M., & Balls, M. (2015). Predicting human drug toxicity and safety via animal tests: can any one species predict drug toxicity in any other, and do monkeys help? Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 43(6), 393-403.
Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753942
Keywords: Bias, animal tests, dog, drug development, monkey, mouse, non-human primate, preclinical testing, rabbit, rat, toxicology
Record type: Academic Paper,Data & Statistics

Citation: Bain, L., Posey Norris, S. M., Keren, N. I., & Stroud, C. (2017). Therapeutic development in the absence of predictive animal models of nervous system disorders: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Link: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24672/therapeutic-development-in-the-absence-of-predictive-animal-models-of-nervous-system-disorders
Keywords: alternatives to animal research, bias, evidence, nervous system
Record type: Expert Opinion

Citation: Bakand, S. (2016). Cell culture techniques essential for toxicity testing of inhaled materials and nanomaterials in vitro Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering, 7(3).
Link: https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/cell-culture-techniques-essential-for-toxicity-testing-of-inhaled-materials-andnanomaterials-in-vitro-2157-7552-1000181.php?aid=81104
Keywords: Air liquid interface, cell culture techniques, inhaled materials, in vitro, nanomaterials, nanoparticles, toxicity testing, alternatives to animal resarch
Record type: Academic Paper,Expert Opinion

Citation: Batista, K. T., Andrade, R. R. d., & Bezerra, N. L. (2012). The role of Research Ethics Committees. O papel dos comitês de ética em pesquisa. Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica, 27, 150-155.
Link: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbcp/v27n1/en_25.pdf
Keywords: Animal ethics committees
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Beauchamp, T. L., & Morton, D. B. (2015). The upper limits of pain and suffering in animal research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(04), 431-447.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180115000092
Keywords: Ethics, animal welfare, animal suffering,
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Beery, A. K., & Zucker, I. (2011). Sex bias in neuroscience and biomedical research. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(3), 565-572
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763410001156
Keywords: Sex bias, nervous system diseases, estrous cycles
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Bello, S., Krogsboll, L. T., Gruber, J., Zhao, Z. J., Fischer, D., & Hrobjartsson, A. (2014). Lack of blinding of outcome assessors in animal model experiments implies risk of observer bias. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67(9), 973-983.
Link: http://www.jclinepi.com/article/S0895-4356%2814%2900157-7/abstract
Keywords: Flaws in animal research, animal model, bias
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Benam, Kambez H., Novak, R., Nawroth, J., Hirano-Kobayashi, M., Ferrante, Thomas C., Choe, Y., et al. (2016). Matched-comparative modeling of normal and diseased human airway responses using a microengineered breathing lung chip. Cell Systems, 3(5), 456–466.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cels.2016.10.003
Keywords: Alternatives to animal research, organ chip, microfluidic, cigarette smoke, electronic cigarette, lung airway, cell culture, cilia, human study, transcriptomic analysis, cytokine, biomarker
Record type: Academic Paper,Research Study

Citation: Ben-David, U., Ha, G., Tseng, Y.-Y., Greenwald, N. F., Oh, C., Shih, J., et al. (2017). Patient-derived xenografts undergo mouse-specific tumor evolution. Nature Genetics, 49, 1567-1575
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3967
Keywords: Bias, cancer, mouse, mice
Record type: Academic Paper,Research Study

Citation: Berns, G. S., Brooks, A. M., & Spivak, M. (2012). Functional MRI in awake unrestrained dogs. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e38027. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038027.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0038027
Keywords: Dogs
Record type: Academic Paper,Research Study

Citation: Blundell, C., Tess, E. R., Schanzer, A. S. R., Coutifaris, C., Su, E. J., Parry, S., et al. (2016). A microphysiological model of the human placental barrier. Lab on a Chip, 16(16), 3065-3073
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6LC00259E
Keywords: Alternative to animal research, placenta on a chip
Record type: Research Study

Citation: Bopp, S., Berggren, E., Kienzler, A., van der Linden, S., & Worth, A. (2015). Scientific methodologies for the assessment of combined effects of chemicals – a survey and literature review. Use of novel and alternative methods in the assessment of effects from combined exposure to multiple chemicals (JRC Technical Reports): European Commission, European Union.
Link: http://bookshop.europa.eu/is-bin/INTERSHOP.enfinity/WFS/EU-Bookshop-Site/en_GB/-/EUR/ViewPublication-Start?PublicationKey=LBNA27471
Keywords: Alternatives, toxicology, public health
Record type: Government Report

Citation: Bottini, A. A., & Hartung, T. (2009). Food for thought… on the economics of animal testing. ALTEX, 26(1), 3-16.
Link: http://www.altex.ch/Current-issue.50.html?iid=104&aid=1
Keywords: Economics, alternatives, food industry, drug industry, cosmetics industry
Record type: Academic Paper,Expert Opinion

Citation: Bowen, A., & Casadevall, A. (2015). Increasing disparities between resource inputs and outcomes, as measured by certain health deliverables, in biomedical research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(36), 11335–11340.
Link: http://www.pnas.org/content/112/36/11335.abstract
Keywords: Research efficiency
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Brinks, V., Jiskoot, W., & Schellekens, H. (2011). Immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins: The use of animal models. Pharmaceutical Research, 28(10), 2379-2385.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-011-0523-5
Keywords: Animal models, bias, immunogenicity, therapeutic proteins
Record type: Academic Paper,Review

Citation: Burden, N., Sewell, F., & Chapman, K. (2015). Testing chemical safety: What is needed to ensure the widespread application of non-animal approaches? PLoS Biology, 13(5), e1002156.
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1002156
Keywords: alternatives, regulation, validation
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Carninci, P. (2014). Genomics: Mice in the ENCODE spotlight. Nature, 515(7527), 346-347.
Link: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v515/n7527/full/515346a.html
Keywords: Mouse, mice, genome regulation
Record type: Research Study

Citation: Cesarovic, N., Arras, M., & Jirkof, P. (2014). Impact of inhalation anaesthesia, surgery and analgesic treatment on home cage behaviour in laboratory mice. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 157, 137-145.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168159114001130
Keywords: Mice, mouse, animal welfare, anaesthesia
Record type: Academic Paper,Research Study

Citation: Chandrasekera, P. C., & Pippin, J. J. (2013). Of rodents and men: Species-specific glucose regulation and Type 2 diabetes research. ALTEX.
Link: http://www.altex.ch/resources/Chandrasekera_epub.pdf
Keywords: Mouse, mice, type 2 diabetes, evidence bias
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Chandrasekera, P. C., & Pippin, J. J. (2015). The human subject: an integrative animal model for 21st century heart failure research. American Journal of Translational Research, 7(9), 1636-1647.
Link: http://www.ajtr.org/files/ajtr0012548.pdf
Keywords: Heart failure, animal models, translatability, human relevance, human-based research
Record type: Academic Paper,Review

Citation: COACH. (2014). Towards the replacement of in vivo repeated dose systemic toxicity testing. SEURAT-1 Annual Report, Vol. 4: European Commission Research & Innovation, Cosmetics Europe.
Link: http://www.seurat-1.eu/pages/library/seurat-1-annual-report.php
Keywords: Toxicity testing, drug safety, cosmetics, alternatives
Record type: Government Report

Citation: Coghlan, S. (2014). Recognizing nonhuman morality. Between the Species, 17(1).
Link: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/bts/vol17/iss1/5/
Keywords: Ethics, morality
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: Committee on Toxicity Testing and Assessment of Environmental Agents, N. R. C. (2007). Toxicity testing in the 21st Century: A vision and a strategy. Washington, D. C.: The National Academies Press.
Link: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11970/toxicity-testing-in-the-21st-century-a-vision-and-a
Keywords: Toxicity testing, drug safety, alternatives
Record type: Report

Citation: Couzin-Frankel, J. (2013). When mice mislead. Science, 342(6161), 922-925.
Link: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6161/922.short
Keywords: Evidence bias, mouse, mice, animal model
Record type: Expert Opinion

Citation: Cressey, D. (2015). UK funders demand strong statistics for animal studies. Move addresses concerns that some experiments are not using enough animals. Nature, 520(7547).
Link: http://www.nature.com/news/uk-funders-demand-strong-statistics-for-animal-studies-1.17318
Keywords: Bias, animal model, 3Rs
Record type: Other

Citation: Gershlak, J. R., Hernandez, S., Fontana, G., Perreault, L. R., Hansen, K. J., Larson, S. A., et al. (2017). Crossing kingdoms: Using decellularized plants as perfusable tissue engineering scaffolds. Biomaterials, 125, 13-22.
Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961217300856
Keywords: Alternatives, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, decellularization, perfusable scaffold, plants
Record type: Academic Paper,Research Study

Citation: Cruelty Free International, & TSGE Consulting. (no year). How to avoid new animal tests in your 2018 REACH registration. A Cruelty Free International/TSGE Consulting report
Link: https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/REACH%202018%20guide.pdf
Keywords: REACH, alternatives, 3Rs
Record type: Report

Citation: Cruelty Free International. (no year). Implementing alternatives to animal testing. The RAT (Replace Animal Tests) list
Link: https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/RAT%20list%20wall%20chart%20briefing%20Final.pdf
Keywords: Alternatives
Record type: Other

Citation: Davis, J., Raisis, A. L., Cianciolo, R. E., Miller, D. W., Shiel, R. E., Nabity, M. B., et al. (2016). Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentration changes after acute haemorrhage and colloid-mediated reperfusion in anaesthetized dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 43(3), 262-270
Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12311
Keywords: Greyhound dogs, acute kidney injury, hypotension, ischaemia
Record type: Academic Paper,Research Study

Citation: de Boo, J., & Knight, A. (2008). Increasing the implementation of alternatives to laboratory animal use. AATEX, 13(3), 109-117.
Link: https://www.academia.edu/411052/Increasing_the_implementation_of_alternatives_to_laboratory_animal_use
Keywords: 3Rs, alternatives
Record type: Academic Paper

Citation: de Waal, F. B., & Suchak, M. (2010). Prosocial primates: selfish and unselfish motivations. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society of London. Series B Biological Sciences, 365(1553), 2711-2722.
Link: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/365/1553/2711.long
Keywords: Non-human primates, empathy, cooperation, behaviour
Record type: Academic Paper,Research Study

Citation: DeGrazia, D. (1991). The moral status of animals and their use in research: a philosophical review. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 1(1), 48-70.
Link: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ken/summary/v001/1.1.degrazia.html
Keywords: Ethics
Record type: Academic Paper

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